Cervical Smear; Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

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A cervical smear test is carried out on cells from the cervical area to check for any malformation or abnormalities that indicate cervical cancer. Cervix is a donut-shaped opening at the vagina. This opening opens up during childbirth, so the baby is pushed out into the birth canal from the uterus. When a woman menstruates, the cervix dilates, and the uterine lining sheds to complete the process of menstruation.

If you’re looking for a reliable and renowned clinic to treat infertility, check out The London Obs and Gynae clinic. You can visit in person or book an online appointment during the working hours of your choice at this cervical smear test London. Below are the common causes of cervical smear:

5 Common Causes

There are several factors related to cervical dysplasia. Some of the major causes can be:

  • Smoking
  • Sexual intercourse before 18 years of age
  • More than two sexual partners
  • Drug use
  • Immune system suppressant illness

What Are the Symptoms of Cervical Smear?

Cervical smear symptoms do not appear immediately in many cases as the cervix is hard to view. It is easier for gynaecologists as their tools help locate and view the cervix. Gynaecologists recommend keeping a good check on your cervix’s health.

Some of the major signs that indicate cervical smear is as follows:

  • Pain while having sex
  • Sex followed by bleeding afterwards
  • Abnormal amount of vaginal discharge
  • Periods with light bleeding
  • Blood spots in between following periods
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Excessive back or pelvic pain

How Can Cervical Cancer Be Treated?

Cancer treatments are trickier than any ordinary illness treatments. A team of different health care professionals such as oncologists, counsellors, dieticians, social workers, and physical assistants sits together to form an outline of treatments and follow-ups. Cervical cancer treatment depends upon different factors such as stage of cancer, patient’s overall health, side effects, and the

Below we have discussed different forms of treatments of cervical cancer in detail

1.      Surgery:

Surgery helps in removing the tumour. There are various kinds of procedures in surgery that are often practised to treat this disease, such as;

  • Conization: This process removes all abnormal tissues causing cervical cancer. A microscope is used to see micro-invasive cancer.
  • LEEP: LEEP requires an electrical current to pass through a thin wire hook. It helps in removing the tissue.
  • Exenteration: in this form of surgery, the uterus, vagina, lower colon, rectum, or bladder is removed.
  • Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: this procedure is used to remove the fallopian tube or both ovaries if required to remove cervical cancer.

2.      Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy uses x-rays that are high in energy to destroy cancer cells. At the initial stages of cervical cancer, low-dose chemotherapy is done every week with a combination of radiation therapy. However, it can be followed by some side effects, such as the patient might feel fatigued, having loose bowel movements, or upset stomach. In addition, internal therapy side effects might include abdominal pain and bowel obstruction.

3.      Others

Some other therapies for cervical cancer that are used to destroy cancer cells include:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy

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